UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate

Duplex stainless is a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite (50/50) which has improved strength over ferritic and austenitic steel grades with similar corrosion resistance qualities. One of the main attractions of duplex stainless steel is cost – due to the materials increased yield strength it is often possible to reduce the thickness of material making it much cheaper than a comparative austenitic stainless steel grade.

Please send your inquiry by   sales@sunnysteel.com


Duplex stainless is a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite (50/50) which has improved strength over ferritic and austenitic steel grades with similar corrosion resistance qualities.

One of the main attractions of duplex stainless steel is cost – due to the materials increased yield strength it is often possible to reduce the thickness of material making it much cheaper than a comparative austenitic stainless steel grade.

Also Duplex steel has a lower alloy content reduces production costs. Certainly cost and weight savings without loss of performance is an attractive proposition to purchasers.

Chemical composition of S32205

UNS NoS32205
Carbon (C)0.03
Silicon (Si)1
Manganese (Mn)2
Phosphorus (P)0.03
Sulphur (S)0.02
Chromium (Cr)22.0/23.0
Molybdenum (Mo)3.0/3.5
Nickel (Ni)4.5/6.5
Nitrogen (N)0.14/0.20
Duplex stainless 2205 (UNS S32205) is a chromium-nickel- molybdenum-nitrogen stainless steel. UNS S32205 has high strength and corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 316°C. UNS S32205 is a duplex grade with a ferritic-austenitic microstructure. The alloy consists of around 40-50% ferrite in the annealed condition.

Benefits Of Using UNS32205 Duplex Stainless Steel

  • Corrosion resistance much better than that of Type 316
  • Greater tensile and yield strength
  • Good ductility and toughness though not as good as austenitic grades
  • Good stress corrosion cracking resistance (SSC)
  • Opportunity for purchases to reduce their material costs without compromising on quality


Hot Forming
Forming below 600°F is recommended whenever possible. When hot forming is required, the workpiece should be heated uniformly and worked in the range of 1750 to 2250°F. Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel plate is quite soft at these temperatures and is readily formed. Above this range, 2205 is subject to hot tearing. Immediately below this range, the austenite becomes substantially stronger than the ferrite and may cause cracking, a particular danger to “cold” edges. Below 1700°F there can be rapid formation of intermetallic phases because of the combination of temperature and deformation. Whenever hot forming is done, it should be followed by a full solution anneal at 1900°F minimum and rapid quench to restore phase balance, toughness, and corrosion resistance. Stress relieving is not required or recommended; however, if it must be performed, the material should receive a full solution anneal at 1900°F minimum, followed by rapid cooling or water quenching.

Cold Forming
Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel plate is readily sheared and cold formed on equipment suited to working stainless steels. However, because of the high strength and rapid work hardening of 2205 duplex stainless steel plate, forces substantially higher than those for austenitic steels are required to cold form it. Also because of the high strength, a somewhat larger allowance must be made for springback.

Heat Treatment
Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel plate should be annealed at 1900°F minimum, followed by rapid cooling, ideally by water quenching. This treatment applies to both solution annealing and stress relieving. Stress relief treatments at any lower temperature carry the risk of precipitation of detrimental intermetallic or nonmetallic phases.

With high-speed steel tooling, 2205 duplex stainless steel plate may be machined at the same feeds and speeds as Alloy 316L. When carbide tooling is used, cutting speeds should be reduced by about 20% relative to the speeds for Alloy 316L. Powerful machines and rigid mounting of tools and parts are essential.

Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel plate possesses good weldability. The goal of welding 2205 is that the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) retain the corrosion resistance, strength, and toughness of the base metal. The welding of 2205 is not difficult, but it is necessary to design welding procedures that lead to a favorable phase balance after welding and will avoid precipitation of detrimental intermetallic or nonmetallic phases.

Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel plate can be welded by: GTAW (TIG); GMAW (MIG); SMAW (“stick” electrode); SAW; FCW; and PAW.

4 Benefits of UNS S32205 Stainless Steel

1. Strength

UNS S32205 has the exceptional tensile and yield strengths characteristic of ferritic stainless steels; far superior to those of austenitic grades. The minimum tensile strength of UNS S32205 is 620 MPa while the minimum yield strength is 450N/mm2.

2. Cost

The superior strength of UNS S32205 represents the opportunity to reduce the volume of material used without compromising on quality. This enables project managers to viably reduce material costs in critical areas.

3. Corrosion Resistance

UNS S32205 benefits from the physical characteristics of ferrite, but its chemical properties come courtesy of its austenitic crystallography. With high concentrations of anti-corrosive elements like chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and molybdenum (Mo), UNS S32205 boasts superior corrosion resistance to even the tried-and-tested stainless steel Type 316.

4. Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance

This manifold of outstanding physicochemical properties makes UNS S32205 exceptional at withstanding dynamic forms of mechanical stress, such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC resistance determines the extent to which an alloy can withstand the propagation of flaws, or cracks, in corrosive environments. UNS S32205 is uniquely prepared to withstand tensile stress in high corrosive and moderate temperature environments, ensuring long-lasting performance with limited maintenance requirements.

Applications of UNS S32205

The cost and weight savings offered by UNS S32205 offer significant benefits for processing facilities and offshore infrastructures contending with corrosive elements. UNS S32205 steels are routinely used to fabricate pumps and valves in seawater applications, providing an exceptionally lightweight material with long-lasting resistance to seawater corrosion (chlorination, oxidation, etc.).


The reality is there are many nuances associated with steel plate and failure to understand them will result in many problems throughout its use in a project. The information in this eBook is meant to clear up many misconceptions.

Carbon steel plate is manufactured for a variety of applications based on its carbon content. Low carbon steel plate, depending on its thickness offers characteristics such as maximum cold forming capability, weldability and improved machining. Medium carbon steel plates (.40 – .50) that are silicon killed offers better strength capabilities but have limited machining and welding properties.

Other types of steel plate offer benefits for structure and construction applications, resistance to abrasion, and the ability to withstand high temperatures and pressures. Additionally, steel plate coils are available in low carbon, pickled and oiled, and black steel coils used for precision roller leveling. It may also be used for cutting standard and custom lengths up to 480”.

As there are different sizes, there are different types of steel plate: stainless steel (commonly known), high-carbon, low-carbon, or alloy steel plates. Each of these types of steel plate are used for different applications, some may be household items while others are much larger, like buildings or tanks.

Steel plate standards

It is customary for American made steel plate manufacturers to choose to have their hot rolled plates recognized by several of these governing bodies, such as ASTM International, ANSI, AISC, AISI, ASCE, ASME, and the AWS along with their European Union standards counterparts.
AbbreviationFull description
ASTM InternationalAmerican Society for Testing and Materials
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
AISCAmerican Institute of Steel Construction
AISIAmerican Iron & Steel Institute
ASCEAmerican Society of Civil Engineers
ASMEAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
AWSAmerican Welding Society

Shipbuiding standards from different countries

Shipbuilding steel plates are produced under the approval of production methods of classification societies in different countries refers to offshore and marine steels.

  • ABS (American Bureau of Shipping)
  • BV (Bureau Veritas)
  • CCS (China Classification Society)
  • DNV (Det Norske Veritas)
  • GL (Germanischer Lloyd)
  • HR (Hellenic Register of Shipping)
  • KR (Korean Register of Shipping)
  • LR (Lloyd’s Register of Shipping)
  • NK (Nippon Kaiji Kyokai)
  • RINA (Registro Italiano Navale)
  • RS (India Register of Shipping)

What is carbon steel?

Iron and carbon are the most abundant materials present in steel. Pure iron is not particularly strong or hard on its own, so it is the addition of carbon that helps give steel its great strength.

The crude iron used to produce steel has a relatively high amount of carbon. Its carbon composition can be as high as 2.1%, which is the greatest amount of carbon a material can contain and still be considered steel.

However, iron can be processed further to reduce carbon. This manipulation of carbon alters several material properties, including:

Strength: The load a material can bear, measured by yield point and tensile strength. Yield point is the point at which a material deforms, but does not break, and tensile strength is the amount of stress needed to actually break a material.

Ductility: The amount a material can be stretched without becoming brittle. Ductility is measured by elongation, which is the percent the length of a material increases before it breaks.

Hardness: The wear resistance of material and machinability of material. This is usually measured on the Rockwell hardness scale or Brinell Hardness scale.

The carbon present in steel is typically reduced so that it fits into three main categories of carbon steel: low (or mild), medium and high carbon steel. Each of these categories contain different levels of carbon, show in the chart below.
Type of carbon steelCarbon composition
Low carbon/mild0.05-0.25%
Medium carbon0.26-0.60%
High carbon0.61-1.50%

Carbon steel plate almost include all the common standards of steel plate/sheet.

  1. ASTM A36 plates – The most common standards of carbon steel plate
  2. ASTM A283 Grade A, B, C – Also most common material in carbon structural.
  3. ASTM A516 – For boiler, vessel steel plate.
  4. ASTM A537 – For heat treated carbon steel plate in fusion welded pressure vessels and structural steel plates.
  5. ASTM A573 – A kind of structural steel plate with carbon-manganese-silicon.
  6. ASTM A572 – ASTM A572 plate mechanical strength is higher than A36. Where with lower weight.
  7. ASTM A737 – For boiler, pressure vessels steel plate of low alloy steel. and etc..

So carbon steel plates have a widely coverage for different types of steel plates in different industries.

What is low carbon steel?

Also known as mild steel, low carbon steel has low strength relative to steel with higher carbon levels. Low carbon steel is the most ductile – or machinable – type of carbon steel as well.

Chemical alloys can also be added to low carbon steel to enhance desired properties without increasing the material’s weight. For example, if low carbon steel requires greater hardness for its desired application, manganese can be added to increase hardness without adding weight. Low carbon steel that contains additional alloys is typically referred to as high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steel.

Some of the most common low carbon steel plate grades, all stocked by us, include ASTM A36, A572 Grades 42 & 50 and A830-1020. Each of these grades have moderate strength, high ductility and lighter weight due to the low carbon content and addition of other alloys. These properties make low carbon steel ideal for use in structural applications like building construction, bridges and transmission towers, where materials must be able to withstand high stress while also being easy to form into structural shapes.

What is medium carbon steel?

Medium carbon steel provides a balance between low and high carbon steel, offering greater strength and hardness than low carbon steel while still remaining more ductile than high carbon steel. Medium carbon steel also typically contains other alloys, such as manganese, that also contribute to its properties.

In applications where greater toughness and hardness are required, medium carbon steel plate can receive heat treatments – such as quenching and tempering – that enhance these properties without compromising its machinability.

Quenching and tempering is a two-step heat treatment process. In the quenching step of this process, steel is heated to a temperature between 1,500-and 1,650-degrees Fahrenheit, then rapidly cooled with water. In the tempering step, the steel is then re-heated to a below-critical temperature – between 300 and 700 degrees – and air-cooled. This process alters the crystal grain structure of steel to enhance hardness and other mechanical properties.

Two common medium carbon steel plate grades that stocks are ASTM A516 Grade 70 and A830-1045. The moderate carbon composition and additional alloys give these grades – and other medium carbon grades – a balance of strength, hardness, ductility and wear resistance. These properties make medium carbon steel ideal for use in applications where materials must withstand strong forces without breaking or wearing out, such as machine parts – including gears, axles and bolts – pressure vessel tanks and automotive parts and components.

Main steel grades of carbon steel plate

Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content from about 0.05 up to 3.8 per cent by weight.
StandardSteel Grade
ASTM A36/A36MA36
ASTM A283/A283MA283 Grade AA283 Grade BA283 Grade CA283 Grade D
ASTM A514/A514MA514 Grade AA514 Grade BA514 Grade CA514 Grade E
A514 Grade FA514 Grade HA514 Grade JA514 Grade K
A514 Grade MA514 Grade PA514 Grade QA514 Grade R
A514 Grade SA514 Grade T
ASTM A572/A572MA572 Grade 42A572 Grade 50A572 Grade 55A572 Grade 60
A572 Grade 65
ASTM A573/A573MA573 Grade 58A573 Grade 65A573 Grade 70
ASTM A588/A588MA588 Grade AA588 Grade CA588 Grade KA588 Grade B
ASTM A633/A633MA633 Grade AA633 Grade CA633 Grade DA633 Grade E
ASTM A656/A656MA656 Grade 50A656 Grade 60A656 Grade 70A656 Grade 80
ASTM A709/A709MA709 Grade 36A709 Grade 50A573Grade70A709 Grade 50SA709 Grade 50W
A709 Grade HPS50WA709 Grade HPS70WA709 Grade 100A709 Grade 100W
A709 Grade HPS100W
ASME SA283/SA283MSA283 Grade ASA283 Grade BSA283 Grade CSA283 Grade D
ASME SA514/SA514MSA514 Grade ASA514 Grade BSA514 Grade CSA514 Grade E
SA514 Grade MSA514 Grade PSA514 Grade QSA514 Grade R
SA514 Grade SSA514 Grade T
ASME SA572/SA572MSA572 Grade 42SA572 Grade 50SA572 Grade 55SA572 Grade 60
SA572 Grade 65
ASME SA573/SA573MSA573 Grade 58SA573 Grade 65SA573 Grade 70
ASME SA588/SA588MSA588 Grade ASA588 Grade BSA588 Grade CSA588 Grade K
ASME SA633/SA633MSA633 Grade ASA633 Grade CSA633 Grade DSA633 Grade E
ASME SA656/SA656MSA656 Grade 50SA656 Grade 60SA656 Grade 70SA656 Grade 80
ASME SA709/SA709MSA709 Grade 36SA709 Grade 50SA709 Grade 50SSA709 Grade 50W
SA709 Grade HPS50WSA709 Grade HPS70WSA709 Grade 100SA709 Grade 100W
SA709 Grade HPS100W
JIS G3101SS330SS400SS490SS540
JIS G3106SM400ASM400BSM400CSM490A
DIN 17100St37-2USt37-2RSt37-2St37-3
DIN 17102StE255WStE255TStE255EStE255

Main steel grades of alloy steel plate

Alloy steel plates are defined as steel plates with a definite range or definite minimum quantity of additional elements, depending on the alloy.
StandardSteel Grade
GB/T 307720Mn220MnVB12CrMoV20CrNi

Stainless steel plate

Quality stainless steel plates are useful in a wide range of industries as they are generally used in elevators, doors, windows, kitchen utensils, pressure vessels, and much more. This product’s formability, longevity, and resistance to corrosion makes it perfect.

Main chemical elements of normal stainless steel

The main alloying element in the stainless steel composition is Ferrum (Fe) and Chromium (Cr), and only when the Cr percentage composition reaches a certain value, the steel has corrosion resistance.


Steel Plate is both corrosion and abrasion-resistant. It is manufactured to a much broader range of thicknesses than ordinary steel sheets. Plate steel is primarily used in applications where a super-structural framework and indestructible durability are required. Not only is it produced for structural purposes, but it can also be implemented for general repairs too. In addition to great reinforcement purposes, Steel Plate is able to withstand immense stress from the harshest natural environments, mainly, the ocean. It serves as a considerable advantage to the world of heavy machinery. Its durability allows for machining and wearable elements to last much longer. Although it’s mostly used for reinforcement and bracing purposes, Plate Steel has proved to have a substantial degree of versatility.

What are the uses of steel plates?

Steel plates can be manufactured by large steel factories or smaller, more specialized plants. Steel plates are one of the many types of steel that can be produced, other types include steel bars, sheets, slabs, rolls, and more. Steel plates are often used for structural and construction applications, pressure vessels, marine and offshore equipment, and military applications. The grade, elements and parameters of a steel plate are also important in how it is used. Construction The construction industry requires many types of steel in all sizes. Steel plates can be found in buildings, bridges and on construction vehicles. Pressure Vessel Plate Pressure vessel plate is a type of steel plate used for storage containers. These storage containers can be boilers, gas tanks, or any unit that stores compressed gas or fluid. They can be manufactured to hold contents at outdoor temperatures or hold contents are more extreme temperatures. Depending on the purpose, these steel plates can be course-grain or fine-grain. Marine Steel plates are also used extensively in the shipbuilding industry. The plates are used for ships and barges or oil rigs and other offshore equipment. They may be manufactured structural parts or they may be implemented as repair pieces. Sometimes extremely durable steel plates are needed, especially in the construction of large offshore facilities. Military Military steel plates are used in tanks, jeeps, trucks and ground vehicles, as well as helicopters, jets and other aircraft. The Navy uses this steel for shipbuilding and naval repair.

Uses for stainless steel plates and sheets

There are many reasons why stainless steel plates are used for a wide variety of applications and products. One main reason is because of its high resistance to oxidation and corrosion. It is also resistant to abrasion and is easy to clean. Stainless steel plates (and stainless steel in general) are also easy to form, has a clean and attractive appearance, and are relatively light yet very durable. These are also pretty malleable without compromising on strength, making it ideal for use with a lot of things. Stainless steel is used by a huge number of industries and by many businesses due to this versatility, strength and corrosion resistance. The usage of these plates often depends on the plate grade. With so many plate grades available, you can be sure that this particular metal does see itself being used for a huge number of applications. Similar to stainless steel plate, the sheet metal has high tensile strength, durability and delivers an exceptional finish. Stainless steel is thus ideal for food production and storage as it does not affect the flavour of the food and the corrosion resistance is an important factor when it comes into contact with acidic foods. Stainless steel is easily cleaned which keeps germs at bay, in turn maintaining the integrity of any sterile environment, including that of the medical industry. Stainless steel sheets, also commonly known as Cold Rolled Products, can be moulded into shapes for making cookware, such as grills, sinks, pots and cookers. Stainless steel sheet is popular as a finish for refrigerators, freezers, countertops and dishwashers. The sheet metal is available in flat pieces or coiled strips and is also useful when making licence plates for cars and even the base of light bulbs.

  • 304: For home appliances, cabinets, steel pipes, water heaters, boilers, medical facilities, building materials, chemical industry, food industry, agriculture, ship parts, etc.
  • 304L: Chemical, coal, and petrol industries.
  • 316: For facilities used in seawater, production machines of chemicals, dyes, oxalic acids or fertilizers; food industry, or facilities near seawater.
  • 316L: With special requirements of intergranular corrosion resistance in 316 applications.

Processing service

The processed product does not require further edge optimization, which greatly improves the customer’s production efficiency and reduces production costs.

Cutting & Customization

Laser cutting

Laser cutting is suitable for more complex and high-precision shape and contour materials, especially the cutting of thinner plates, so it is an ideal choice for processing high-end products.

Plasma Cutting

The working area can reach 3×5 meters, and it can cut stainless steel plates of various grades with a thickness of 3-150 mm. In most cases, the cutting needs to be performed underwater, so as to ensure the flatness and straightness of the final parts, while reducing the affected area.

Waterjet cutting

The tolerance of water jet cutting is small and the cutting surface is smooth. During the processing, there will be no oxidation of metal materials, no residual stress and heat-affected zone, avoiding secondary processing, which greatly saves time and manufacturing costs, and achieves the best economic benefits for customers.

Stable Job

Our factory use high-quality imported machine tools. When the machine tool is working, the table and the workpiece will not move. The laser head movement design with small inertia and high dynamic performance is adopted to greatly improve the accuracy and stability of the machine tool. Convenient exchange of tables reduces machine standby time and improves equipment utilization.

Automatic control

The automatic programming software that comes with the cutting machine directly generates the numerical control processing program from the graphic file. At the same time, the communication software can be used to make the CNC and the computer implement two-way communication, and the drawing on the computer is convenient and simple. Automatic nesting and discharging can improve the utilization rate and production efficiency of plates.

High-quality equipment performance

Imported pneumatic components ensure the correct function of the machine tool. Various orchestration can be automatically converted for cutting various materials and plate thicknesses. High-pressure auxiliary gas ensures clean cutting of stainless steel.

Other Steel Plate Fabrication Services


Final product of steel plate bending is U, V shape and channel steels, steel plate with ductile properties and small thickness size (steel sheet) is suitable for this processing, the core equipment is brake press.


Plate beveling is essential for welding treatment, it removes the steel part from the steel edge to create a space for welding material. This processing makes the welding joint more firm for better penetration and deposition.


The purpose of plate pickling is to remove impurities of the steel plate on the surface, steel workpiece in high temperature environment inevitably have a oxide layer on steel surface, by dipping in a kind of strong acidic pickle liquor, the impurities like stains, rust, inorganic contaminants and scale can all be cleaned.


Hot rolling: hot rolling is the most common production process, final product is covered with rough oxide layer which can be removed in pickling process.
Cold rolling: cold rolling steel has advantages of better surface finish condition and strict tolerance, it can not be used to reducing the steel plate thickness.

Stainless steel sheets & plates finishes

Stainless steel sheets & plates finishes

SurfaceCharacteristicSummary of manufacturing methodApplication
NO.1Silvery white lacklusterHot rolled to specified thicknessDo not need to have a glossy surface use
NO.2DSilvery whiteAfter cold rolling, heat treatment and pickling are carried outGeneral material, deep material
NO.2BGloss is stronger than No.2DAfter No.2D treatment, the final light cold rolling is carried out through the polishing rollerThe general material
BAAs bright as a sixpenceNo standard, but usually a bright annealed surface with high reflectivity.Building materials, kitchen utensils
NO.3Rough lappingGrind with 100~200# (unit) strop tapeBuilding materials, kitchen utensils
NO.4Intermediate grindingPolished surface obtained by grinding with 150~180# strop abrasive tapeBuilding materials, kitchen utensils
NO.240Fine lappingGrinding with 240# strop abrasive tapekitchenware
NO.320Very fine grindingGrinding was carried out with 320# strop abrasive tapekitchenware
NO.400The luster is close to BAUse 400# polishing wheel to grindGeneral timber, building timber, kitchen appliances
HLHairline grindingSuitable particle material for hair stripe grinding (150~240#) with many grainsBuilding, construction material
NO.7It's close to mirror grindingUse a 600# rotary polishing wheel to grindFor art or decoration
NO.8Mirror ultrafinishThe mirror is ground with a polishing wheelReflector, for decoration
Stainless steel sheet is produced in many types of finishes due to the various uses and applications that stainless steel can be used in. It has become popular in kitchens due to its low maintenance, cleanliness, appearance, and corrosion resistance to food acids and water.

Hot rolling process introduction

Hot rolled steel plate is basic steel plate product state, hot roll means processing temperature is over 1700˚F(re-crystallization temperature),at this temperature, steel forms even and stable structure, hot rolled steel plate can be fabricated easily, cutting, welding, etc, and it is more competitive for lower price than cold rolled steel plate. So knowing what kind of steel you need might help you reduce the cost.

A steel billet is rolled after several passes after heating, and then trimmed to be corrected into a steel sheet. Hot rolling can significantly reduce energy consumption and reduce costs. Steel plasticity is active during hot rolling, and the deformation resistance is low, which means steel billet can be fabricated with lower energy consumption. With the high temperature, the coarse grains in the as-cast state are broken, the cracks are healed, the casting defects are reduced or eliminated, the as-cast microstructure is transformed into a deformed structure to improve the processing properties of the alloy. Then Steel plate size shrinks slightly. Unlike cold rolled steel plate, it has rough surface and un-uniform edge.


The actual type of certificate that is issued will be dependent of the particular plate supplied, details of this certification are listed below.

The actual type of certificate that is issued will be dependent of the particular plate supplied, details of this certification are listed below.

EN10204:2004 3.1

This certificate is issued by the mill as a declaration of compliance with the specification and includes test results which are validated by the mill’s own in–house testing department. It is a requirement that this testing arrangement is completely separate and independent of the manufacturing centre.

EN10204:2004 3.2

A more demanding inspection where the steel is inspected not only by the mill but by a third party such as Lloyds Register or TUV. The third party will countersign the certificate which states that the plates are fully compliant with the specification and the test certificate is issued.

Magnetic Particle Inspection

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing method where an electrical current is passed through a test specimen forming a magnetic field.

The test is intended to establish if the continuity of the material is intact and identifies surface and near surface flaws. Once magnetised, if there is any discontinuity in the material, the magnetic field will leak. Iron particles are applied to the specimen and if an area of leakage is present the iron particles will be attracted to this area. The build up of these particles indicates potential flaws in the material which can then be investigated further.

Magnetic Particle Inspection is an excellent method for detecting surface or near surface cracks in the material. The specimen should be tested in two directions at 90 degrees because it is possible that a surface crack could be following the direction of the magnetic field. If this were the case the field is unlikely to be interrupted and therefore no flaw would be identified.

PMI test

To ensure the accuracy of the material. Positive Material Identification (PMI) of stainless steel sheets for tube shields is critical to verifying the grade and composition of stainless steel before it goes into production.

Main chemical elements and their functions

Carbon (C) :
1. Improve the deformation resistance and tensile strength of the blade;
2. Enhance hardness and improve wear resistance.

Cr (Cr) :
1. Enhance hardness, tensile strength and toughness;
2. Anti-wear and corrosion.

Cobalt (CO) :
1. Increase the hardness and strength so that it can withstand high temperature quenching;
2. Used to enhance certain individual properties of other elements in more complex alloys.

Copper (Cu) :
1. Enhance corrosion resistance;
2. Enhance wear resistance.

Manganese (Mn) :
1. Increase the quenchability, wear resistance and tensile strength;
2.Removal of oxygen from molten metal by separate oxidation and separate vaporization;
3. When added in large quantities, the hardness is enhanced, but the brittleness is improved.

Molybdenum (Mo) :
1. Enhanced strength, hardness, quenchability and toughness;
2. Improve machinability and corrosion resistance.

Nickel (Ni) :
1. Enhance strength, hardness and corrosion resistance.

Phosphorus (P) :

Enhanced strength, machinability and hardness.

2. When the concentration is too large, it is easy to crack

Silicon (Si) :
1. enhanced ductility;
2. Increase the tensile strength;
3. Removal of oxygen from molten metal by separate oxidation and separate vaporization.

Sulphur (S) : small amount used to improve machinability.
Tungsten (W) : Increases strength, hardness and toughness.
Vanadium (V) : Increases strength, hardness and seismic resistance.

Delivery State

According to requirements of customers, steel plates, steel pipes and other steel products supplied here can be delivered at the following states:

Hot Rolled

No extra heat treatment to steel product after hot rolling or forging, steel plate or pipe is directly delivered after cooling, called hot rolled or hot forging. Final temperature range of the steel product is 800 ~ 960 ℃, generally cooled naturally in the air.

Hot rolling status is simply as normalizing treatment. The difference is that hot rolled final temperature is not steady, while normalizing is more strict at fire heating temperature control, the fluctuations of microstructure and properties of steel is bigger than normalizing.

Cold Drawing

Steel product produced by cold drawing, cold rolling or other cold forming process, could be directly delivered without any heat treatment is known as the cold drawn or cold rolled condition. Compared with the state of hot rolling, forging.

Cold drawing (rolling) state has the advantages of high dimensional accuracy, good surface quality, and have higher mechanical properties. But for steel surface has no oxidation skin coverage for steel product at cold drawing (rolling) delivery status, and has higher internal stress, it is vulnerable to corrosion or rust, so packaging, storage and transportation requires more strict conditions for steel plate or steel pipe of this delivery state, generally use warehouse storage, and temperature and humidity should be controlled within a normal range.


Normalize heat treatment temperature (hypo eutectoid steel: Ac3+30 to 50 °C, eutectoid steel: Accm+30 to 50 °C), temperature control is more strict than hot-rolled state, it has uniform performance.

Normalized state,compared with annealed state, due to rapid cooling process of normalizing, the number of pearlite in the microstructure of the steel increased, so it has higher comprehensive mechanical properties and can improve the low carbon steel of the widmanstatten structure and eutectoid cementite network form, it is used to prepare for further heat treatment.

Carbon steel, alloy steel are usually produced at normalizing delivery condition. Some high strength low alloy steel such as 14MnMoVBRE, 14CrMnMoVB steel, in order to obtain Bainite microstructure, also requires normalizing delivery condition.


The purpose of annealing is mainly to eliminate the legacy of tissue defects and improve internal stress, it’s the pre-treatment for better organization and performance for after processes.

Alloy structural steel, cold heading steel, bearing steel, tool steel, turbine blade steel, heat resistant stainless steel steel products are commonly used annealing state delivery.


High tempering temperature is conducive to eliminate internal stress, improve the plasticity and toughness of carbon structure steel, alloy steel; quench hardenability structural steel are adopted with high temperature tempering state delivery.

Some high strength martensite stainless steel, high-speed tool steel and high strength alloy steel, high temperature tempering is often after quenching (or drawing) process, steel product of this delivery state has good machinability.

Solid Solution State

Solid Solution State is mainly applied to the treatment of austenitic stainless steel. Single-phase austenite is obtained through solid solution treatment, in order to improve the toughness and plasticity of the steel, also prepare for further cold rolled or cold drawn processing.


And for further peace of mind, we ensure that your steel consignment is tested to your requirements. Much of our steel stock is “pre–tested” to an extremely stringent level so in most cases it is available to ship immediately. For direct supply from the mill, we can arrange for your steel to be tested at source or you can arrange for a third party company to complete the testing – the choice is yours.

Each package is fitted with an adhesive label with the following standard information:
Material standards
Material testing type (EN10204-3.1 / 2.2 …)
Dimensions of the steel plate
Number of the steel sheets that make up the package
Package weight
Package number (package ID)
Purchase order confirmation number
Client order number
Destination address
Material quality
Upon request it is possible to customize the writing on the label, and if agreed, place additional labels on the packages.


Need to inquire about our products? Fill out the form below and our staff will be in touch!

Contact Form Demo


Q: How long is your delivery time? A: The delivery time of customized products is generally 25 35 days, and non customized products are generally shipped within 24 hours after payment. Q: Do you provide samples? Is it free? A: If the value of the sample is low, we will provide it for free, but the freight needs to be paid by the customer. But for some high value samples, we need to charge a fee. Q: What are your payment terms? A: T/T 30% as the deposit,The balance payment is paid in full before shipment Q: What is the packaging and transportation form? A: Non steaming wooden box and iron frame packaging. Special packaging is available according to customer needs. The transportation is mainly by sea. Q: What is your minimum order quantity? A: There is no minimum order quantity requirement. Customized products are tailor made according to the drawings provided by the customer.